Below are the slides of a presentation I give on the basics of bike fitting. The lecture is catered to those with little to no experience with bike fitting.
The presentation answers the questions:
1. What is the difference between bike sizing and bike fitting?
2. What are the key bicycle adjustment points?
3. What does a bad bike fit feel like? What does a bad bike fit look like?
4. What are the key measurements to capture the current bike fit. Ie How to I transfer my current bike fit to a new bike
5. How do I fit my own bicycle? Ie How do I know if my bike fits while I am riding it?
6. What is a neutral bike fit?
7. What is an accommodated bike fit? How do I adjust my bike to make my knee pain go away?
This chart from BikeFit is a good starting resource for simple pain troubleshooting.